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Friday, June 2, 2023

Who are the Muslim Brotherhood?

After receiving threats for writing a book on the Muslim Brotherhood, anthropologist Florence Bergeaud-Blacker saw her planned conference at the Sorbonne canceled for security reasons. She was received yesterday by the Minister of the Interior, Gérald Darmanin.

The Muslim Brotherhood is first and foremost a religious, political and social organization created in 1928 in Egypt by Hassan al-Banna, Tariq Ramadan’s grandfather. Its original objective? To impose Sunni Islam through jihad and to apply the precepts of the Koran against “Western secular hold” And “the blind imitation of the European model”.

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The brotherhood quickly created branches in several countries, in the Middle East, in Africa and in Europe. Some spoke of non-violence while others called for taking up arms in the name of holy war. The organization is thus qualified as terrorist in several States – this is not the case in France, where it is embodied by the association Musulmans de France. Financially supported by Saudi Arabia until the Gulf War – before Riyadh broke the bridges -, it triggered several armed conflicts and had mixed fortunes.

Leaders sentenced to death in Egypt

In Egypt, it acquired respectability under Hosni Mubarak, even if the latter forbade it the status of a political party. After the Arab Spring of 2011, the brotherhood won the legislative and then the presidential elections, with the election, in June 2012, of Mohamed Morsi. But a year later, the army regains power, dissolves the movement and condemns several of its leaders to death.

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The Muslim Brotherhood has been in power the longest in Sudan: they were then allied with President Omar el-Bashir, who held the country with an iron fist between 1989 and 2019. Finally, the West Bank branch gave birth in 1987 to Hamas, which today controls the strip. from Gaza.

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